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                  精密平面磨床電力拖動及控制要求

                  2021-08-24  來自: 威海豐潤機械有限公司 瀏覽次數:37

                  精密平面磨床 基于精密平面磨床的工作性質和加工精度要求,對電力拖動控制方案提出如下要求:

                   

                    (1)精(jing)密(mi)平面(mian)磨(mo)床(chuang)是一種精(jing)密(mi)加工(gong)機(ji)(ji)床(chuang),為了保證其加工(gong)精(jing)度要(yao)求(qiu)(qiu),機(ji)(ji)床(chuang)運(yun)行時要(yao)求(qiu)(qiu)平穩。工(gong)作臺(tai)往(wang)復運(yun)動(dong)(dong)(dong)在(zai)換向(xiang)時要(yao)求(qiu)(qiu)慣(guan)性要(yao)小,無沖擊力(li),因此,工(gong)作臺(tai)的(de)(de)往(wang)復運(yun)動(dong)(dong)(dong)采用(yong)液壓(ya)傳動(dong)(dong)(dong)。由電動(dong)(dong)(dong)機(ji)(ji)拖動(dong)(dong)(dong)液壓(ya)泵,供(gong)應壓(ya)力(li)油,通過液壓(ya)傳動(dong)(dong)(dong)裝置(zhi)實現工(gong)作臺(tai)的(de)(de)縱向(xiang)進給運(yun)動(dong)(dong)(dong),并通過工(gong)作臺(tai)上的(de)(de)撞塊(kuai)操縱床(chuang)身上的(de)(de)液壓(ya)換向(xiang)閥(開關),改變壓(ya)力(li)油的(de)(de)流(liu)向(xiang),實現 工(gong)作臺(tai)的(de)(de)換向(xiang)和(he)自動(dong)(dong)(dong)往(wang)復運(yun)動(dong)(dong)(dong)。

                   

                    (2)為了(le)簡化磨床(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)機械傳(chuan)(chuan)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)機構,采用多(duo)電(dian)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)機單獨拖(tuo)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)。精密(mi)平面磨床(chuang)采用三臺電(dian)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)機拖(tuo)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong),砂(sha)輪(lun)的(de)(de)(de)旋轉(zhuan)運動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)由(you)(you)裝入式電(dian)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)機直接(jie)拖(tuo)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)。液(ye)壓(ya)泵(beng)由(you)(you)液(ye)壓(ya)泵(beng)電(dian)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)機拖(tuo)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong),經液(ye)壓(ya)傳(chuan)(chuan)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)裝置完成(cheng)工作臺的(de)(de)(de)往(wang)復(縱向(xiang)進(jin)(jin)給(gei)(gei))運動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong),砂(sha)輪(lun)架的(de)(de)(de)橫(heng)向(xiang)進(jin)(jin)給(gei)(gei)運動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong),砂(sha)輪(lun)架的(de)(de)(de)快速橫(heng)向(xiang)移動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)以(yi)及(ji)工作臺導軌的(de)(de)(de)潤滑等。拖(tuo)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)冷(leng)卻泵(beng)的(de)(de)(de)電(dian)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)機為磨削(xue)加工提(ti)供冷(leng)卻液(ye)。

                   

                    (3)為了提(ti)高(gao)(gao)磨削質(zhi)量(liang),要求(qiu)砂(sha)(sha)輪(lun)有較(jiao)高(gao)(gao)轉(zhuan)速,通常(chang)采用兩極(理想空載(zai)轉(zhuan)速為3000r/min頻(pin)率為50Hz)的(de)籠型(xing)異步電動(dong)機(ji)拖(tuo)動(dong)。為了提(ti)高(gao)(gao)調(diao)整(zheng)運(yun)轉(zhuan)的(de)砂(sha)(sha)輪(lun)主軸(zhou)的(de)風度,采用裝入式電動(dong)機(ji)拖(tuo)動(dong),電動(dong)機(ji)與砂(sha)(sha)輪(lun)主軸(zhou)同軸(zhou),從而提(ti)高(gao)(gao)了磨床的(de)加工精度。

                   

                    (4)平面(mian)磨(mo)削(xue)(xue)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中,由于磨(mo)削(xue)(xue)溫度(du)高,為減少(shao)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)的熱(re)變形,必須使(shi)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)得到充分的冷(leng)(leng)卻,同時冷(leng)(leng)卻液能沖走磨(mo)屑和砂粒,以保證磨(mo)削(xue)(xue)精度(du)。

                   

                    (5)精密平(ping)面磨床常用電(dian)(dian)磁(ci)吸(xi)盤(pan),利用電(dian)(dian)磁(ci)吸(xi)力很方便地安裝和加(jia)(jia)工小工件(jian),且工件(jian)在加(jia)(jia)工過程中由(you)于發熱變形(xing),電(dian)(dian)磁(ci)吸(xi)盤(pan)允(yun)許工件(jian)有自由(you)伸縮余(yu)地,從(cong)而保證加(jia)(jia)工精度。

                   

                    為(wei)了滿(man)足上(shang)述電力(li)拖動控(kong)制(zhi)方案的要求(qiu)(qiu),對精(jing)密平(ping)面(mian)磨床的電力(li)拖動控(kong)制(zhi)系統提出(chu)以(yi)下幾點要求(qiu)(qiu):

                   

                    (1)砂輪、液壓泵(beng)、冷卻泵(beng)三臺電(dian)動(dong)機(ji)都只要求單方向旋(xuan)轉。

                   

                    (2)冷(leng)(leng)卻泵(beng)電(dian)動機(ji)(ji)應隨砂輪電(dian)動機(ji)(ji)的開(kai)動而開(kai)動,若加工(gong)中(zhong)不需要冷(leng)(leng)卻液(ye)時,可單獨斷(duan)開(kai)冷(leng)(leng)卻泵(beng)電(dian)動機(ji)(ji)。

                   

                    (3)在正常加工(gong)中,若電(dian)(dian)磁(ci)吸(xi)(xi)盤吸(xi)(xi)力不(bu)足或消(xiao)失時,砂(sha)輪電(dian)(dian)動機與液壓(ya)(ya)泵(beng)電(dian)(dian)動機應立(li)即停(ting)止工(gong)作(zuo),以(yi)防止工(gong)件(jian)被砂(sha)輪切身力打飛而(er)發生人身和設備事故。不(bu)加工(gong)時,即電(dian)(dian)磁(ci)吸(xi)(xi)盤不(bu)工(gong)作(zuo)的情況下,允(yun)許砂(sha)輪電(dian)(dian)動機與液壓(ya)(ya)泵(beng)電(dian)(dian)動機開支(zhi),機床(chuang)作(zuo)調整運動。

                   

                    (4)電磁(ci)(ci)吸盤(pan)勵磁(ci)(ci)線圈(quan)具有吸牢工(gong)件(jian)的(de)正向(xiang)勵磁(ci)(ci)、松開工(gong)件(jian)的(de)斷開勵磁(ci)(ci)、以及為抵消剩(sheng)磁(ci)(ci)便于取下工(gong)件(jian)的(de)反勵磁(ci)(ci)控制環節。

                   

                    (5)具有完善的保(bao)護(hu)(hu)環節。各電(dian)(dian)路的短路保(bao)護(hu)(hu),各電(dian)(dian)動機的長期過(guo)載保(bao)護(hu)(hu),零壓(ya)、欠壓(ya)保(bao)護(hu)(hu),電(dian)(dian)磁吸力(li)不足的欠電(dian)(dian)流保(bao)護(hu)(hu),以及(ji)線(xian)圈(quan)斷開時產生高電(dian)(dian)壓(ya),而(er)危及(ji)電(dian)(dian)路中其它電(dian)(dian)器(qi)設備的過(guo)壓(ya)保(bao)護(hu)(hu)等等。

                   

                    (6)機床 照明電路與工件去磁的控制環節。



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